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楼市调控政策新规影响意义深远
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来源:
风险办管理办公室
时间:
2017-11-29
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14855

近日,国土资源(yuan)部、住房城乡建设部印(yin)发(fa)了(le)《利(li)用集体(ti)建设用地(di)建设租赁(lin)(lin)住房试点方案》,此次的(de)(de)方案将在北京、上(shang)海、沈阳、南京、杭(hang)州、合(he)肥(fei)、厦门、郑州、武(wu)汉、广州、佛山、肇庆、成都(dou)等地(di)率先(xian)开展试点,该政策是对(dui)我国现阶段土地(di)制(zhi)度的(de)(de)一次创新,突破了(le)现行法律规定(ding)“非农(nong)建设必须使用国有土地(di)”的(de)(de)限制(zhi),此次方案的(de)(de)试点虽然是针对(dui)租赁(lin)(lin)住房建设,其政策效应短期对(dui)商(shang)品(pin)房市(shi)场影(ying)(ying)响不大,如(ru)政策全面推开远期会改(gai)变商(shang)品(pin)房市(shi)场供需(xu)平衡进而对(dui)商(shang)品(pin)房市(shi)场产(chan)生重(zhong)要影(ying)(ying)响。

由(you)于经济持(chi)续繁(fan)荣,我国(guo)的(de)城市化进(jin)程加速(su),在十(shi)几年的(de)时(shi)间里,数(shu)以亿(yi)计的(de)人口迁入城市定居,我国(guo)城市的(de)房(fang)地产(chan)价格开始普(pu)遍上升,并在后期出现(xian)巨大分(fen)化。从(cong)国(guo)家统计发(fa)布(bu)的(de)房(fang)价指数(shu)来看,自2010年(nian)开始我国70城市房价指数(shu)开始(shi)缓慢上升,在2012年(nian)底开始(shi)突然(ran)上升,之(zhi)后(hou)至2014年底增速趋(qu)于平稳,但(dan)2015年(nian)又开始急速(su)上升。出现这种情况(kuang)的原因是2014年(nian)开始土(tu)(tu)地(di)供(gong)应政策出现(xian)转(zhuan)向,国土(tu)(tu)部(bu)要求东部(bu)三大城市群发展要以盘活土(tu)(tu)地(di)存量为主,今后将逐(zhu)步(bu)调减东部(bu)地(di)区(qu)新(xin)增建设用地(di)供(gong)应,除生活用地(di)外,原则(ze)上不再安排人口500万以上特大城市新增建设用(yong)地(di)。这(zhei)种计划配置城市建设用(yong)地(di)的(de)(de)做法,是(shi)导(dao)(dao)致一(yi)二线城市房(fang)价(jia)泡沫(mo)、三四线库(ku)存泡沫(mo)的(de)(de)原(yuan)因(yin)(yin)。而究其根本原(yuan)因(yin)(yin)是(shi)土(tu)地(di)制度(du)的(de)(de)城乡(xiang)双轨制,以及对土(tu)地(di)市场(chang)的(de)(de)垄断导(dao)(dao)致的(de)(de)房(fang)地(di)产市场(chang)供需不平衡。

我国建设(she)(she)(she)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)主(zhu)要(yao)集(ji)中在城(cheng)市,一般情况下农(nong)村集(ji)体(ti)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)需要(yao)征(zheng)收(shou)后才(cai)能转为建设(she)(she)(she)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)。农(nong)村集(ji)体(ti)作为农(nong)村土地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)的(de)(de)(de)所有(you)(you)(you)(you)(you)者(zhe)(zhe)无权(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)设(she)(she)(she)置建设(she)(she)(she)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)使(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)权(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan),农(nong)村土地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)只(zhi)有(you)(you)(you)(you)(you)在被征(zheng)收(shou)为国有(you)(you)(you)(you)(you)土地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)后才(cai)能用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)于非农(nong)建设(she)(she)(she)。城(cheng)市房地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)产管理(li)法(fa)(fa)实际(ji)上是国有(you)(you)(you)(you)(you)建设(she)(she)(she)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)管理(li)法(fa)(fa),《物权(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)法(fa)(fa)》所谓的(de)(de)(de)建设(she)(she)(she)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)使(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)权(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)也仅指国有(you)(you)(you)(you)(you)建设(she)(she)(she)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)使(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)权(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan),这种使(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)权(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)具有(you)(you)(you)(you)(you)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)益(yi)物权(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)的(de)(de)(de)一般属性,并且可以转让、互(hu)换、出资、赠(zeng)与或者(zhe)(zhe)抵(di)押,而《物权(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)法(fa)(fa)》所谓的(de)(de)(de)宅(zhai)(zhai)基地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)使(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)权(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)不同于“住宅(zhai)(zhai)建设(she)(she)(she)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)使(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)权(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)”,后者(zhe)(zhe)作为国有(you)(you)(you)(you)(you)建设(she)(she)(she)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)的(de)(de)(de)一个亚种拥有(you)(you)(you)(you)(you)前(qian)述用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)益(yi)物权(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)的(de)(de)(de)一切权(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)能,而前(qian)者(zhe)(zhe)作为农(nong)村集(ji)体(ti)所有(you)(you)(you)(you)(you)的(de)(de)(de)宅(zhai)(zhai)基地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)使(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)权(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan),其(qi)使(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)权(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)人只(zhi)对集(ji)体(ti)所有(you)(you)(you)(you)(you)的(de)(de)(de)土地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)享有(you)(you)(you)(you)(you)占有(you)(you)(you)(you)(you)和(he)使(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)的(de)(de)(de)权(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)利,没有(you)(you)(you)(you)(you)收(shou)益(yi)权(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan),更不可以转让、互(hu)换、出资、赠(zeng)与或者(zhe)(zhe)抵(di)押。

据统计,目前我国(guo)农村存(cun)量集体(ti)(ti)建设用地近19万平方公里,其中(zhong)70%以上是宅(zhai)基(ji)地,真正属(shu)于经营性建(jian)设(she)用地即乡镇和村(cun)办企(qi)业用地所占(zhan)(zhan)比例很小(xiao)约占(zhan)(zhan)10%。如果把(ba)(ba)农(nong)村(cun)(cun)集(ji)体(ti)经(jing)营性建设用地(di)仅限于原有的乡(xiang)镇和村(cun)(cun)办(ban)企业(ye)用地(di),农(nong)村(cun)(cun)集(ji)体(ti)建设用地(di)所占比重和发(fa)挥的作用微不足道。最近,中央(yang)已(yi)批准把(ba)(ba)土地(di)征收制(zhi)度改革和农(nong)村(cun)(cun)集(ji)体(ti)经(jing)营性建设用地(di)入(ru)市(shi)改革扩(kuo)大到现有33个试点地(di)区(qu), 但(dan)宅(zhai)基地(di)制度改革仍(reng)维持(chi)在原15个试(shi)点地(di)(di)(di)(di)区。盘活农村集(ji)体建(jian)设用(yong)(yong)(yong)地(di)(di)(di)(di),以(yi)其中闲置或低效(xiao)配置的(de)(de)土地(di)(di)(di)(di)入市(shi),可以(yi)使城市(shi)建(jian)设用(yong)(yong)(yong)地(di)(di)(di)(di)增加,可以(yi)满足相当时期内我国工业化(hua)和(he)城市(shi)化(hua)对建(jian)设用(yong)(yong)(yong)地(di)(di)(di)(di)的(de)(de)需求,不(bu)仅如此,合理的(de)(de)土地(di)(di)(di)(di)制度(du)安排和(he)健康的(de)(de)城镇化(hua)进程,本(ben)质上(shang)会减少(shao)耕地(di)(di)(di)(di)的(de)(de)占(zhan)用(yong)(yong)(yong)。因此,存量(liang)集(ji)体建(jian)设用(yong)(yong)(yong)地(di)(di)(di)(di)试(shi)点建(jian)设公(gong)租房(fang)(fang),意味着大(da)批低成本(ben)土地(di)(di)(di)(di)入市(shi),对抑制高房(fang)(fang)价(jia)将产生(sheng)巨大(da)作(zuo)用(yong)(yong)(yong),是真正(zheng)意义上(shang)的(de)(de)楼市(shi)调控(kong)大(da)招,彰显(xian)了中央建(jian)立(li)租售并举住(zhu)房(fang)(fang)体系的(de)(de)决心,是土地(di)(di)(di)(di)制度(du)的(de)(de)重大(da)变(bian)革,照(zhao)此逻辑推演,未来土地(di)(di)(di)(di)入市(shi)是否要经过政(zheng)府征地(di)(di)(di)(di)环节都有可能(neng)发(fa)生(sheng)变(bian)化(hua)。

 
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